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But the
extension of such communism, the distribution of services to the general
public without charge, is due to-day, not to any acceptance of the
general principle, but to the fact that it is inconvenient or impossible
to attempt to distribute the cost of many services among individuals in
proportion as they take advantage of them.

Kautsky expresses the prevailing Socialist view when he says that the
_principle_ of equality, if distinguished from mere _artificial
leveling_, will play a certain rôle in a Socialist society. Without any
definite legislation in that direction the natural economic forces of
such a society will tend to raise low wages, and at the same time, by
the increase of competition for higher positions, to lower somewhat the
highest salaries. For if Socialists are opposed to any kind of
artificial equality or leveling, they are still more opposed to
artificial inequality, and all the initial advantages that arise out of
the possession of wealth or privileges in education will be done away
with.[303]

On the supposition that Socialism proposes a communistic leveling of
income, it has been stated very often by Socialists that it would be
necessary to abolish wages, but there is no authority for this either
from Karl Marx or from any of his most prominent successors. It is "wage
slavery" or "the wage system" that is to be abolished. In his letter on
the Gotha Program written in 1875 Marx said that there will be applied
to wages "the principle which at present governs the exchange or
merchandise to that degree in which identical values are being
exchanged"; that is to say, supply and demand, when it operates
_freely_, will give us a standard also in a Socialist system. There will
be no starvation wages, no inflated salaries, no "rent" of educational
advantages, no unearned income and no monopoly prices, but automatically
adjustable prices and wages will continue. In 1896 Jules Guesde, perhaps
the best known disciple of Marx in France, expressed nearly the same
idea in the Chamber of Deputies--"The play of supply and demand," he
said, "will have sufficed to determine without any arbitrary or violent
act, that problem of distribution which had seemed insoluble to you
before."

Here again we see that Socialism, in its aversion to all artificial
systems and every restriction of personal liberty is far more akin to
the individualism of Herbert Spencer than it is to the "State Socialism"
of Plato. Socialists expect their children to be far wiser and more
fortunate than themselves, and do not intend to attempt to decide
anything for them that can well be left undecided. They intend only that
these children shall have the freedom and power necessary to direct
society as they think best. The few principles I have mentioned are
perhaps the most important of those they believe to be the irreducible
minimum needed to insure this result.

FOOTNOTES:

[292] H. G. Wells, "This Misery of Boots," pp. 29-32.

[293] Alfred Russell Wallace, "The Railways and the Nation," the
_Arena_, January, 1907.

[294] Anton Menger, "L'État Socialiste" (Paris, 1904), p. 348.

[295] Karl Kautsky, "The Social Revolution," pp. 121-123.

[296] Karl Kautsky, "The Social Revolution," pp. 165-167.

[297] Karl Kautsky, "The Social Revolution," p. 179.

[298] Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Gilman in the _Forerunner_ (1910).

[299] The Communist Manifesto.

[300] Émile Vandervelde, "Collectivism," p. 126.

[301] John Spargo, "Socialism."

[302] Edward Bellamy, "Equality," p. 89.

[303] Karl Kautsky, "Das Erfurter Programm," pp. 161-162.




INDEX


Abbot, Lyman, 33, 36, 97, 283, 284.

AGRICULTURE, 7, 85, 96, 300-323.

America, _see_ United States.

_American Federation of Labor_, _see_ United States Labor Unions.

Amsterdam, _see_ International Congresses.

André, 381.

_Appeal to Reason, The_, 321, 430.

Asquith, Herbert, 153, 362.

Augagneur, 132, 134, 398.

Australasia, the Labour Parties of, 85, 86, 92-94, 128, 146, 151,
168, 174.

Australasia, "States Socialism" in:
the labor policy, 53, 86;
agrarian and land policy, 85, 88, 89;
government ownership, 84, 85, 89-91.

Austria, the Socialist Party of, 239, 247, 252, 259, 347.


Baden, 256-264.

Baker, Ray Stannard, 32.

Barnes, George, 164, 165.

Bauer, Otto, 239, 247.

Bebel, August:
on reformism, 117, 123, 126, 130, 131;
on revolutionary politics, 232;
on the revolutionary trend, 251, 252, 254, 255, 258-264;
on the class struggle, 281;
on the agricultural problem, 301;
on the general strike, 390, 391;
on revolution, 416, 418, 419.

Belgium, the Socialist Party of, 139, 141, 146, 252.

Bellamy, Edward, 435.

Belloc, Hilaire, 160, 161, 163.

Berger, Victor:
and the "State Socialist" labor policy, 63;
on reformism, 126, 211;
as leader of Milwaukee Socialists, 178, 189, 195, 202-207;
on revolutionary politics, 240-242;
on the agricultural and land question, 317, 318;
on political revolution, 418.

Bernstein, Edward, 1, 99, 179, 180, 240, 285, 286, 331.

Bismarck, 43, 403, 404.

Bissolati, 140-144.

Bland, Hubert, 161.

Bohn, Frank, 373-375.

_Boston Herald, The_, 379.

Boudin, Louis, 180.

Bowling, Peter, 69, 70.

Brandeis, Louis, 60.

Briand, Aristide, 126, 132-134, 137, 388, 394-398, 421, 422.

_Bridgeport Socialist, The_, 193.

Brisbane, Arthur, 33-35,
see also _New York Journal_.

Brooks, John Graham, x.

Brousse, Paul, 135.

Bryan, William Jennings, 30, 180, 341.

Burns, John, 251, 357.

Butler, Nicholas Murray, 392.


_Call, New York, The_, 198, 272, 399.

Canada, compulsory arbitration in, 78-80.

Canada, the Socialist Party of, 288.

Carnegie, Andrew, 63, 97, 151, 152.

CATHOLIC CHURCH, 87, 258.

Chesterton, G. K., 160.

Churchill, Winston:
and the Social reform program, 2, 4-7, 9, 11, 12;
and the politics of state capitalism, 42;
and the state capitalist labor policy, 50, 54, 55, 57-59;
and compulsory arbitration, 82;
and the Labor Party, 151, 152;
and the class struggle, 280, 298;
and labor unions, 348, 360, 361, 363.

_Civic Federation, The_, 343, 344, 419-421.

Clark, Professor John Bates, 124, 236, 237.

Clark, Victor S., 66, 69, 79, 80, 90.

CLASS STRUGGLE, THE, 33-36, 135-136, 245-247, 276-287, 297-299, 347;
_see also_ REVOLUTION.

_Collier's Weekly_, xi, 199, 397.

Compère-Morel, 201, 309, 315.


Davenport, Daniel, 68.

Debs, Eugene V.:
on "State Socialism," 83;
on reformism, 175-177, 191;
on labor unions, 335, 343-345;
on syndicalism, 366, 372, 375;
on revolution, 401.

DEMOCRATIC REFORMS, 31-45, 148-150, 155, 184, 217-230, 378, 379.

Denmark, 259, 260.

De Toqueville, Alexander, 130.

Devine, Edward, 61.

Dreher, W. C., 94, 269.

Duchez, Louis, 332, 369.


EDUCATION, _see_ PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

Eliot, Charles W., 51, 79, 80, 100-105.

Elm, von, 391.

Engels, Friedrich, 112-115, 231-233.


Fabian Society, _see_ Great Britain.

Ferri, Enrico, 132.

Fischer, Richard, 263.

Fisher, Irving, 53.

Fisher, Premier, 85.

Flexner, Abraham, 52.

France, labor unions in, 366, 377-384, 388, 394-398, 412, 414.

France, the Socialist Party of:
reformism in, 135-139, 200, 240, 244, 247, 274;
on the land and agricultural question, 309, 315-318;
on labor unions (_see_ France, labor unions);
the revolution, 390, 414, 417, 418, 421, 422, 424.

Frank, 257, 259, 262.

_Frankfurter Zeitung_, 256.


Garment Workers, United, 190, 350.

Gary, Judge, 16, 29.

Gaynor, William J., 195, 283.

George, Henry, 13, 14, 97, 320, 323.

Germany, "labor unions" in, 68, 336, 346, 347, 352, 384, 385.

Germany, the Socialist Party of:
position on reformism in, 125, 128, 217-235, 245-247;
its revolutionary trend, 248-270;
position on class struggle, 280, 284, 285, 288-291, 327-331;
the agricultural question in, 300-304, 307, 309, 312, 317, 318;
the revolution in, 389-391, 403, 404, 407, 414, 419, 423, 424.

Germany, "State Socialism" in, 2, 4, 43, 51, 52, 55-57, 94-96;
_see also_ Bismarck.

Ghent, W. J., 205, 210.

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 433.

Gompers, Samuel, 121, 336-338, 341-343, 345-347, 349.

GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP, 4, 14, 16, 17, 24, 85, 90, 111, 112, 126,
146-147, 207-209, 233-234.

Grayson, Victor, 122.

Great Britain, labor unions:
compulsory arbitration, 68;
attitude to class struggle, 341, 348;
the new unionism, 354, 355-366, 371, 372.

Great Britain, the Labour and Socialist parties of
(_see also_ MacDonald, Shaw, Wells, Webb, Hardie, etc.):
The Labour Party, 1, 44, 123, 146-151, 164-168, 173, 174;
The Fabian Society, 2, 47, 62, 149, 152-157, 159-164, 410-412;
The Social-Democratic Party, 123;
The Independent Labour Party, 146, 147, 151-153, 164-167, 240;
The Socialist Party, 167, 168.

Great Britain, "State Socialism" in:
the Social reform program, 1-12;
the politics of the New Capitalism, 42-45;
the labor policy, 47-51, 53-59, 61, 62;
compulsory arbitration, 80-83;
the school question, 104;
"State Socialism" and the Socialists, 122, 123, 146, 147, 153.

Guerard, 381.

Guesde, Jules, 131, 137, 250, 318, 424, 436.


Hadley, President, 51.

Hanford, Benjamin, 211.

Hard, William, 60.

Hardie, James Keir, 146, 147, 164, 165.

Harlan, Justice, 202.

Hartshorn, Vernon, 355.

Haywood, William, 366, 371-376.

Hearst, William Randolph, 33, 215.

Herron, George D., 238, 335.

Hervé, Gustave, 138, 295, 372, 375, 382, 417, 418, 422.

Hillquit, Morris, 210, 213.

Hobson, John A., 50, 99, 150, 157, 158.

Holmes, George K., 97.

Howe, Frederick C., 15.

Hoxie, Professor Robert F., 175.

Hughes, Jessie Wallace, 41, 68, 176, 339, 390.

Hungary, 152, 163, 336, 345.


_Independent, The_, x, 124.

INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM, 354-386.

International Socialist Congresses:
Paris (1900), 139, 248, 249;
Amsterdam (1904), 137-139, 248-251;
Stuttgart (1907), 406.

_International Socialist Review, The_, 372.

Italy, the labor unions of, 376.

Italy, the Socialist Party of, 140-145, 398.


Jaurès, Jean:
on reformism, 132-139, 141, 144, 146;
on revolutionary politics, 242, 244;
on the revolutionary trend, 249-251;
on the general strike, 389, 390.

_Justice_, 123, 167.


Kautsky, Karl:
on the first step towards Socialism, 111, 112;
on reformism, 153;
on reform by menace of revolution, 217-227;
on revolutionary politics, 233-236, 244-247;
on the revolutionary trend, 248, 249, 253, 264-268, 273, 274;
on the class struggle, 290, 291, 296, 297, 299;
on the land and agricultural question, 300-304, 307, 312, 317, 318;
on the working class, 327-330;
on labor unions, 346;
on syndicalism, 384-385;
on political revolution, 416, 419, 423, 424;
on the transition to Socialism, 431-433, 435.

Kelly, Edmond, 63, 128, 357.

Kirkpatrick, George R., 408-410.


LABOR LEGISLATION, 46-96, 137, 339.

LABOR UNIONS, 66-84, 334-400.

Labour Party, _see_ Great Britain and Australasia.

Labriola, Arturo, 376.

Lafargue, Paul, 232, 247, 318.

La Follette, Robert M., 25, 26, 68, 179, 180, 182, 187, 277, 341, 393.

_La Follette's Weekly_, 1, 23, 188.

Lagardelle, Herbert, 376-382, 417.

LAND QUESTION, 3-6, 87-89, 92, 93, 96, 113, 234, 300-323.

La Salle, Ferdinand, 248, 425.

Ledebour, 254, 255.

Legien, Karl, 342, 347.

Le Rossignol and Stewart, 70-75, 89, 91.

Liebknecht, Karl, 258, 403, 404, 408.

Liebknecht, Wilhelm, ix, 117, 125, 236, 248, 250, 288, 289, 327.

Lincoln, 278.

Lloyd George, David:
and the social reform program, 2, 7-11;
and the politics of State Capitalism, 42-44;
and the State capitalist labor policy, 48, 49, 56, 62;
and compulsory arbitration, 80;
and the Labor Party, 151;
and labor unions, 360, 386.

London, Jack, 410.

Louis, Paul, 225, 382, 383.

Lunn, George R., 198.

Luxemburg, Rosa, 416.


McCarthy, Mayor, 190, 332.

_McClure's Magazine_, 24, 98.

MacDonald, J.



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Keywords: australasia, capitalism, principle, herbert, united, states, international, victor, without, equality
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